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Kerr Environmental Research Lab. Ada, OK Nov 84 U.
Proceeding from the Second International Conference on the Flat
Bagawandoss, Azar Habibafshar, Thomas G. Environmental Protection Agency P. BoxAda, OK Loading rates 3 to 13 weight percent end frequencies 1 to 12, respectively, per year were studied over an 18 month period. Total oil losses were proportional to the amount applied and averaged 54 percent over the study period.
Saturates fraction loss was highest followed by aromatics, polars, and asphaltenes. Volatile losses were substantial at application, but relatively small over the long-term. Biodegradation of the oil followed first order kinetics with a rate coefficient of 0.
Heavy metals were immobile in the top 30 cm zone of incorporation. Facility design factors are discussed relating to field equipment operation, oil percolation prevention, runoff control, and proper tillings. Under a mandate of national environmental laws focused on air and water quality, solid waste management and the control of toxic substances, pesticides, noise, and radiation, the Agency strives to formulate and imple- ment actions which lead to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life.
Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory is the Agency’s center of expertise for investigation of the soil and subsurface environment. Personnel at the Laboratory are responsible for management of research pro- grams to: The report contains technical information useful to those responsible for making decisions on operational aspects for oily residue waste disposal at land treatment facilities. Topics covered are 1 design criteria for loading rates, frequencies of applications, and tilling frequency, 2 fate of the waste’s priority pollutants, and 3 atmospheric emissions assessment.
Hall Director Robert S. A research site owned by the Universi- ty of Oklahoma was used. A total of 50, 6. The soil was analyzed for oil content, selected heavy metals, selected organic priority pollutants, pH, nitrate and chloride, over a 18 month pe- riod. Oxygen levels in the soil atmosphere, and the emission rate of volatile hydrocarbons were monitored.
A laboratory study to identify and quantify volatile hydro- carbons emitted was also performed. Fractionation analy- sis of sludges and recovered oils were done for sat- urates, aromatics and polar compounds and asphaltenes. Total oil losses were proportional to the amount of oil applied with mean losses over the study period equal to 54 percent of the oil applied.
Каталог программ. Часть 1.
Losses of the satu- rates fraction were highest followed by aromatics, polar compounds, and asphaltenes. Volatile losses as a per- centage of the oil applied were relatively small over the long term, but were substantial in terms of short term losses immediately after application.
Biodegradation of both total oil and individual oil fractions followed first-order actualteests kinetics. Site monitoring determined that heavy metals were immobilized and the organic priority pollutants were de- graded in the zone of incorporation top 30 cm. Some build-up of actualtestw occurred over the study period.
Operational considerations such as sludge loading rates and frequencies, proper atualtests of the zone of in- corporation, prevention of oil percolation and runoff, and operation of field equipment after sludge application are important factors in the design of land treatment fa- cilities.
This report was submitted in fulfillment of Coopera- tive Agreement No. The report covers a actualtesta period from April, to April, field and lab work was completed in June Conclusions and Recommendations 6 Conclusions 6 Recommendations 7 3. Literature Review 8 4.
Oil loading and content data B. Volatile emissions data C. Time relation of emission rate and – temperature – Benzene 6. Don 5336 and Mr. Vv08 Myers of the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory for their assistance and guidance during this project.
Tyagi assisted with the analytical work. Finally, we would like to express our sincere appreciation to Barbara Jones and Betty Craig for their efforts in preparation of the manuscript. Municipal wastes and sludges were probably the first such wastes to be spread on the land. This practice was no doubt influenced by the fertilizer value of these wastes. Many industrial wastes have also been applied to land for treatment and disposal.
In the past 25 years, land treatment of sludges from petroleum refineries has become a more frequently used process. Recently, it was reported that b08 percent of the refinery sludges were disposed of by land treatment in with an increase to.
Work completed to date shows that land treatment can be an effective and environmentally safe procedure for oil and biological sludges. Migration of heavy metals can be controlled by maintaining aerobic conditions and a pH above 6. One potential prob- lem resulting from land treatment of refinery sludges is leaching of organics through the unsaturated zone to the ground water. Leaching is addressed in this study. When land area is readily available, land treatment is usually more cost effective than the other disposal techniques, including landfilling.
The relative simplicity of the process is a major advantage. However, process simplic- ity can also lead to quick abuse. A high percentage of the volatiliza- tion takes place during and immediately after application and tilling. After a few days volatilization approaches a baseline level and decreases at a very slow rate for several months.
Losses through volatilization and mi- gration are undesirable, while losses through photode- gradation and biodegradation are desirable. It is pre- ferable to maximize the biodegradation process and min- imize the rate of volatilization and migration to avoid environmental adversities.
It is also important to know if any pollutants are released into the environment, be- yond the limited’soil treatment zone.
A review of the literature published relating to land treatment of petroleum industry residues was carried out. Site visits and personal interviews were also con- ducted for several refineries in Oklahoma.
Limited in- formation exists concerning site selection, site prepara- tion, run-off control, and sludge application techniques. The response of crops in sludge treated areas and the re- lation of vegetation to the process, has also been re- ported.
Many questions about the process are unanswered. The most important questions relate to potential migra- tion of constituents, basic design criteria for loading rates and application practices.
Optimization of the process has not been completely defined. Site life, closure and unsaturated zone monitoring are also topics on which very little information exists.
Resource Conservation and Re- covery Act, suggest the establishment of valid design guidelines for certain industries is urgently needed. Because petroleum refineries constitute one of the top ten industrial waste generators and was in among the fastest growing in the nation this study was undertaken.
The major objectives of the study are as follows: The criteria are loading rates and ap- plication frequencies and tilling frequency. To accomplish this study a land treatment research site was established near the University of Oklahoma cam- pus.
A total of 32 test plots and 8 control plots, each 6. A 4 x 4 factorial experiment was proposed with loading rate and loading frequency as the two variables.
Duplicate com- binations of loading rates and frequencies were estab- lished. The experimental design, including loading rates and frequencies, were modified as the study progressed. The final design is discussed in the appropriate sections of this report. The loading rates and frequencies were modified because of unfavorable antecedent soil condi- tions and climatic conditions. Higher than average rain- fall made oil application and tilling impossible for months at a time.
Therefore, applications at high loading rates were split and applied over two or more days- On some occasions, rain forced the second applica- tipn’.
The soil of the zone of incorporation, top This sampling pro- gram was established so rates of degradation could be determined. The fate of selected organic and inorganic priority pollutants was determined on two plots with loading rates of 10 percent and 6 percent, and at application frequency of 2 times per year.
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The plots were sampled 8 times in 15 months. The samples were analyzed for the priority pollutants suspected in the oily residues, as well as possible degradation products. Samples were collected from the top Samples were also taken below the zone of incorporation to detect which priority pollutants were migrating vertically.
In assessing atmospheric emissions from land treat- ment, the objectives were 1 to determine the rate and magnitude of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from land treatment of refinery sludges, 2 to identify the rela- tive effects of such parameters as sludge loading rate, temperature, soil moisture content and relative humidity on the magnitude of hydrocarbon emissions, 3 to identify and quantify individual compounds being emitted to the atmosphere, and 4 to develop a statistical model to pre- dict the total volatile emissions rate based on the above mentioned variables.
A fractionation scheme sep- arated the recovered hydrocarbons into four fractions: From a process standpoint none of the individual plots reached equilibrium in two years. An estimate of four to five years is required to reach equilibrium. Therefore, an additional two to three years would be needed to more fully evaluate the land treatment process for equilibrium biokinetics.
The biodegradation process for the study followed psuedo-first-order reaction kin- etics for both total oil and individual oil fractions. A simplified single-substrate model was developed for pos- sible use in process design and operation. Annual loading rates should be based on projected equilibrium oil concentrations not exceeding 12 percent oil with an individual application maximum of 4 percent oil. Soil should be tilled just preceeding application and then immediately following to increase the soil sorption and holding capacity, respectively.
Proper surface slopes are important to maintain adequate drainage and control erosion. Rototilling under proper moisture conditions is important.