Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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On the overlap between scalle and depression in dementia. Behavioral problems in dementia: The control treatment consisted on one-to-one meetings with an activity therapist. Subacute methylphenidate treatment for moderate to moderately severe traumatic brain injury: In conclusion, apathy in Alzheimer’s disease is associated with older age, more severe deficits in activities of daily living, and a faster progression of cognitive and functional impairments.

Patients with apathy were significantly older, had more severe cognitive deficits and more severe impairments in activities of daily living than patients without apathy.


To examine whether apathy should be considered a mere symptom of depression in dementia, we first examined whether the onset of depression during the follow-up period was associated with increasing apathy. Apathy is most frequently associated with depression and severe dementia.

J Head Trauma Rehabil Aug; 17 4: Objective The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in nondemented patients with early untreated PD. The problem with this hypothesis is how to avoid the Cartesian dilemma of psychological states motivation and past or present emotional experiences producing a physical state action. This instrument consists of 18 items that can be administered as a self-rated scale, as a starksetin scale, or as a clinician administered test.


These findings suggest that apathy in Alzheimer’s disease should not be considered as star,stein symptom of severe depression only. Recent Developments in Parkinson’s Disease. In a study that included patients with AD, Landes and coworkers diagnosed apathy based on a cut-off score on the Dementia Apathy Interview and Rating Landes et al.

There are several valid and reliable scales to measure the severity of apathy in adults with neuropsychiatric disorders.

Nevertheless, the frequency of apathy is highest among individuals with dementia, and the present review will mainly focus on the frequency and clinical correlates of apathy in AD. Diagnosis of Apathy Marin defined apathy as the absence or lack of feeling, emotion, interest or motivation Marin The Apathy Scale was validated for use in stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.

We will briefly discuss the neurobiological basis of apathy, and also review pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities. Conclusions Apathy is being increasingly recognized as one of the most frequent behavioural changes among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Habib concluded that “athymormia” is the result of a striatal-limbic disconnection syndrome characterized by deficits converting past or present emotional experience into action.

In a study that included men with Parkinson’s disease Ready and coworkers Ready et al.

Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

Effect of amantadine hydrochloride on symptoms of frontal lobe dysfunction in brain apxthy Mechanism of apathy in AD The current view on the mechanism of apathy in neurological disorders is mostly mechanistic: Our group and others have also reported a relatively high frequency of apathy among a;athy with stroke lesions, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease Burns et al.


Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 17 Apathy is currently defined as diminished motivation as expressed in poor goal-oriented behaviours and cognitions. We examined the frequency of apathy in a study that included a consecutive series of patients with probable AD Starkstein et al. The mechanism of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown, but recent studies suggest that disruption of frontal cortical-basal ganglia circuits and executive dysfunction may both play an important role.

About two thirds of the AD patients with apathy were also depressed either major or minor depression. Attention and memory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: J Neurol Starksrein Psychiatry in press.

Eur J Neurol ; 2: Psychostimulant use in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury. The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in nondemented starkstein apathy scale with early untreated PD.

Recent studies provided working definitions of apathy that were operationalized into standardized diagnostic criteria. Effects of methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: Based on answers to specific questions, symptoms are scored as either absent, subclinical, or definitely present.

Amantadine to improve neurorecovery in traumatic brain injury-associated diffuse axonal injury:

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