Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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It is easy to see that both these sweeping assumptions are not the products of unrealistic fantasies. Here, then, the indirect national goal of snd citizens alive and their possessions intact would have won over the goal of national self-preservation in the traditional sense.

If it is true that competition, even the competition for arma- ments, is not what lies at the heart of conflict and enmity, then certain conclusions follow with respect to disarmament, As long as the incompatibility of the goals has not been resolved by com- promise or by renunciation on the part of one of the opponents, it is hard to conceive of any side intentionally giving up an advantage in the competition for means.

A geographical set of conditions, for instance, can affect the behavior of a nation only as specific persons perceive and interpret these conditions.

It would be ironic to characterize the relationship between Israel and its Arab neighbors as a competition for territory when the latter desire to wipe the former off the map while the former is seeking to hold on to or possibly enlarge its territory. Here tension and war are ascribed exclusively to the psychoneurotic traits of the leaders and elites of countries that initiate war, traits that in turn are seen as the result of unhappy childhood experiences of the individuals in question or of social conditions within the countries in which they lived.

The minds-of-men approach received its emotional stimulus from two sources: Here for once the analogy with the behavior and interests of individuals should not be misleading. In assisting “wars of liberation,” for instance, the Soviet Union may hope to gain friends or allies for itself while simultaneously helping history along its predestined path toward a Communist world. If the restoration of the former territorial integrity of the country enjoyed top priority among German national goals, West Germany could bring it about at the price of turning Communist and joining the Soviet camp.


Picturing aspirations and goals at opposite poles is not accurate. Here, then, the decision-making approach would become necessary to supplement vague generalizations about reactions to discomfort that might be deduced from human nature In general, and such supplementation would become the more necessary the less overheated the house.

Much more important are the emotions of sympathy or antipathy, love or hatred, of the policy- makers themselves. Terry Taylor added it Jan 18, A government that had assured its country of adequate security would not be violating its duties if it extended help to friendly nations without concern for the advantages its own country might expect to gain in return.

Nations also face these differences in their milieu, although it is up to them to decide to what extent they wish to devote their resources to the benefits they may hope to derive from helping to preserve or improve conditions prevailing beyond their borders. Andy Biggs added it Jan 08, However, there is ample evidence to show that the United Nations and its agencies, the European Coal and Steel Community, the Afro-Asian bloc, the Arab League, the Vatican, the Arabian-American Oil Company, and a host of other nonstate entities are able on occasion to affect the course of international events.

Complacency no less than hysteria, and willingness to demand sacrifices no less than desire for popularity, affect the interpretation men give to what the “necessity of state” requires. Hate-provoking caricatures of the enemy and atrocity stories, supposedly conducive to a high state of morale among fighting men and the population generally, are widely used although it remains controversial whether feelings of hatred for the enemy are indis- pensable in war.

Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books

In many instances the pendulum has swung from extreme 1 David Easton introduces the term situational determinants in contrast to psychological determinants to indicate “those determinants which shape activity in spite of the kind of arnild and motivations in the participants. Not geography, but the relationship between the United States and Western Europe has changed. Yet only on a few occasions and then only as illustrations of general propositions will concrete events or real persons be mentioned in the following chapters.

Jakob Kromann marked it as to-read Jun 17, Similarly, efforts to promote international law or to establish international organizations, undertaken consistently by many nations, are addressed to the milieu in which nations operate and indeed such efforts make sense wolfres if nations have reason to concern themselves with things other than their own possessions. The most radical psychopolitical approach is taken by the psychologists, psychiatrists, and sociologists whose views are contained in the two volumes of the “Tensions Project” of UNESCO, Tensions that Cause Wars ed.


Reunification has become a pressing possession goal for these discor countries. Some exponents of realist thought have been misunderstood to riscord that power or even maximum power represents the only significant goal.

Instead I ajd address my thanks to two great universities: Wherever choices have to be made and decisions taken, the gulf between generalizations, even of a low order of abstraction, and the unique case that calls for action is deep and cannot ane bridged by any theorizing operation. A second illustration should serve to show what is meant arnolc compulsive action arising not from external danger but from an opportunity for gain.

The erection of tariff barriers, on the contrary, is of interest primarily to those private groups that expect to profit from tariff protection and it may or may not be advantageous to the nation as a whole. Environmental factors, then, operate through a prism, represented by the personal traits of the actor, that may deflect or distort, trans- form or reflect, these environmental factors in a variety of ways, depending on the internal structure of the prism.

Collaborration attention of scholars, practitioners, and the public is centered here on such large and complex phe- nomena as military coalitions, dominant powers, empires in liquida- tion, or autocratic regimes.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.

More even than in the case of the individual actors, one is justi- fied here in using the term “deviation” to indicate that any discor tant impact of noiistate corporate actors arnole the exception rather than the rule. Needless to say, this is a utopia. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. The actors in international politics — Amity and enmity among nations — The determinants of foreign policy — Statesmanship and moral choice — The goals of foreign policy — The pole of power and the pole of indifference — Power and influence:

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