Depending on the methods of counting, as many as three hundred versions of the Indian epic . Unmatta-raghava of Bhaskara written around 14th century. The Kannassa Ramayanam written by Niranam Rama Panicker in the 16th century. Ramayana is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince . 14th century), Krittibas Ojha’s Krittivasi Ramayan (also known as Shri Rama Panchali) in Bengali (c. 15th century), Sarala Das’ Vilanka Ramayana (c. Telugu selections from Bharatam and Bhaskara Ramayanam with commentary. Front Cover. Pi. Vi Sōmayāji. K. Subrahmanyam, – 70 pages.
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Along with the Mahabharatait forms the Hindu Itihasa. The epic, traditionally ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmikinarrates the life of Ramathe legendary prince of the Kosala Kingdom. It follows his fourteen-year exile to the forest from the kingdom, by his father King Dasharathaon request of his second wife Kaikeyi. His travels across forests in India with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmanathe kidnapping of his wife by Ravanathe demon king of Lankaresulting in a war with him, and Rama’s eventual return to Ayodhya to be crowned king.
There have been many attempts to unravel the epic’s historical growth and compositional layers; various recent scholars’ estimates for the earliest stage of rwmayanam text range from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE, with later stages extending up to the 3rd century CE.
The Ramayana is one of the largest ancient epics in world literature. It consists of nearly 24, verses mostly set in the Shloka meterdivided into seven Kandas and about sargas chapters. In Hindu rwmayanam, it is considered to be the adi-kavya first poem.
It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal husband and the ideal king.
Ramayana was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life and culture. Like MahabharataRamayana is not just a story: There are many versions of Ramayana in Indian languages, besides Buddhist, Sikh and Jain adaptations. According to Hindu tradition, and the Ramayana itself, the epic belongs to the genre of itihasa like Mahabharata. According to Hindu tradition, Ramayana takes place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga.
In its extant form, Valmiki’s Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24, verses. The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of which is a palm-leaf manuscript found in Nepal and dated to the 11th century CE. A Times of India report dated 18 December informs about the discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata.
Textual scholar Robert P. Goldman differentiates two major regional revisions: Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that “the Ramayanalike the Mahabharatais a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind.
There has been discussion as to whether the first and the last volumes bala kandam and uttara kandam of Valmiki’s Ramayana were composed by the original author. Most Hindus still believe they are integral parts of the book, in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book.
Retellings include Kamban ‘s Ramavataram in Tamil c. However, the general cultural background of Ramayana is one of the post- urbanization periods of the eastern part of north India and Nepalwhile Mahabharata reflects the Kuru areas west of this, from the Rigvedic to the late Vedic period.
By tradition, the text belongs to the Treta Yugasecond of the four eons yuga of Hindu chronology. Rama is said to have been born in the Treta yuga to king Dasharatha in the Ikshvaku dynasty.
However, nowhere in the surviving Vedic poetry is there a story similar to the Ramayana of Valmiki.
According to the modern academic view, Vishnuwho, according to Bala Kandawas incarnated as Ramafirst came into prominence bhqskara the epics themselves and further, during the puranic period of the later 1st millennium CE. Also, in the epic Mahabharata, there is a version of Ramayana known as Ramopakhyana.
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This version is depicted as a narration to Yudhishthira. Books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic, while the first and last books Bala Kanda and Uttara Kanda, respectively are later additions, as some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes ramaynaam the rest of the book.
Dasharatha was the king of Ayodhya. He had three wives: Kaushalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. He was childless for a long time and anxious to produce an heir, so he performs a fire sacrifice known as putra-kameshti yagya.
These sons are endowed, to various degrees, with the essence of the Supreme Trinity Entity Vishnu ; Vishnu had opted to be born into mortality to combat the demon Ravana, who was oppressing the gods, and who could only be destroyed ramayaanam a mortal. The boys are reared as the princes of the realm, receiving instructions from the scriptures and in warfare from Vashistha. When Rama is 16 years old, sage Vishwamitra comes to the court of Dasharatha in search of help against demons who were disturbing sacrificial rites.
He chooses Rama, who is followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion throughout the story.
Rama and Lakshmana receive rakayanam and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra and proceed to destroy the demons. Janaka was the king of Mithila. One day, a female child was found in the field by the king in the deep furrow dug by his plough.
Overwhelmed with joy, the king regarded the child as a “miraculous gift of god”. The child was named Sita, the Sanskrit word for furrow. Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm.
The king had decided that who ever could lift and wield the heavy bow, presented to his ancestors by Shivacould marry Sita. Sage Vishwamitra takes Rama and Lakshmana to Mithila to show the bow. Then Rama desires to lift it and goes bnaskara to wield the bow and when he draws the string, it breaks.
The weddings are celebrated with great festivity in Mithila and the marriage party returns to Ayodhya. After Rama and Sita have been married for twelve years, an elderly Dasharatha expresses his desire to crown Rama, to which ramqyanam Kosala assembly and his subjects express their support. On the eve of the great event, Kaikeyi — her jealousy aroused by Mantharaa wicked maidservant — claims two boons that Dasharatha had long ago granted her.
Kaikeyi demands Rama to be exiled into the wilderness for fourteen years, while the succession passes to her bhaaskara Bharata. The heartbroken king, constrained by his ramaysnam devotion to his given word, accedes to Kaikeyi’s demands. Rama accepts his father’s reluctant decree with absolute submission and calm self-control which famayanam him throughout the story.
He is joined by Sita and Lakshmana. When he asks Sita not to follow him, she says, “the forest where you dwell is Ayodhya for me and Ayodhya without you is a veritable hell for me. Meanwhile, Bharata who was on a visit to his maternal uncle, learns about the events in Ayodhya. Bharata refuses to profit from his mother’s wicked bhaskaea and visits Rama in the forest.
He requests Rama to return and rule. But Rama, determined to carry out his father’s orders to the letter, refuses to return before the period of exile. However, Ramajanam carries Rama’s sandals and keeps them on the throne, while he rules as Rama’s regent.
After thirteen years of exile, Rama, Sita and Lakshmana journey southward along the banks of river Godavariwhere they build cottages and live off the land. At the Panchavati forest they are visited by a rakshasi bhasjara Shurpanakhasister of Ravana.
She tries to seduce the brothers and, after failing, attempts to kill Sita. Lakshmana stops her by cutting off her nose and ears. Hearing of this, her brother Khara organises an attack against the princes.
Rama bhxskara Khara and his raskshasas. When the news of these events reach Ravana, he resolves to destroy Rama by capturing Sita with the aid of the rakshasa Maricha. Maricha, assuming the form of a golden deer, captivates Sita’s attention. Entranced by the beauty of the deer, Sita pleads with Rama to capture it. Rama, aware that this is bbhaskara ploy of the demons, cannot dissuade Sita from her desire and chases the deer into the forest, leaving Sita under Lakshmana’s guard.
After some time, Sita hears Rama calling out to her; afraid for his life, she insists that Lakshmana rush to his aid. Lakshmana tries to assure her that Rama is invincible and that it is best if he continues to follow Rama’s orders to protect her.
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On the verge of hysterics, Sita insists that it is not she but Rama who needs Lakshmana’s help. He obeys her wish but stipulates that she is not to leave the cottage or entertain any stranger.
He draws a chalk outline, the Lakshmana rekhaaround the rqmayanam and casts a rajayanam on it that prevents anyone from entering the boundary but allows people to exit.
With the coast finally clear, Ravana appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita’s hospitality. Unaware of her guest’s plan, Sita is tricked into leaving the rekha and is then forcibly carried away by Ravana. Jatayua vulturetries to rescue Sita, but is mortally wounded. At Lanka, Sita is kept under the guard of rakshasis. Ravana asks Sita to marry him, but she refuses, being eternally devoted to Rama. Meanwhile, Rama and Lakshmana learn about Sita’s abduction from Jatayu and immediately set out to save her.
During their search, they meet Kabandha and the ascetic Shabariwho direct them towards Sugriva and Hanuman. Kishkindha Kanda is set in the ape Vanara citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman, the biggest devotee of Rama, greatest of ape heroes and an adherent of Sugrivathe banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha.
Rama befriends Sugriva and helps him bhasjara killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kishkindha, in exchange for helping Rama to recover Sita. However Sugriva soon forgets his promise and spends his time in enjoying his powers.
The clever former ape queen Tara wife of Vali calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the ape citadel. She then eloquently convinces Sugriva to honour his pledge.
Sugriva then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west.
The southern search party under the leadership of Angada and Hanuman learns from a vulture named Sampati elder brother of Jatayuthat Sita was taken to Lanka. Sundara Kanda forms the heart of Valmiki’s Ramayana and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman ‘s adventures. After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the sea to Lanka.
On the way he meets with many challenges like facing a Gandharva kanya who comes in the form of a demon to test his abilities. He encounters a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Lord Hanuman assistance and offers him rest. Lord Hanuman refuses because there is little time remaining to ramayqnam the search for Sita.
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After entering into Lanka, he finds a demon, Lankini, who protects all of Lanka. Hanuman fights with her and subjugates her in order to get into Lanka. Here, Hanuman explores the demons’ kingdom and spies on Ravana.