Iz Wikipedije, slobodne enciklopedije. Idi na navigaciju Idi na pretragu. Britanski kralj George VI i kraljica Elizabeta se voze kočijom za vrijeme posjeta Kanadi. Enciklopedija Britanika letters of that period (F. Miklosich’s Monumenta Serbica, Putsich’s Srpski Spomenitsi u Dubrovachkoy Arkhivi. skola/_Radna-sveska-uz-GRAMATIKUzarazred-srpski-jezik- KLETT :// Monografija -i-atlasi/_Enciklopedija-BritanikaJ-L-sazeto-izdanje daily

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. In an era of growing global interdependence and compression of history, any sort of self-isolation might not only result in provincialization, peripheraliza- tion, or self-marginalization, but may also imperil the very survival of nations and their authentic cultures.

In the history of mankind, ethno-contact zones have usually represented porous borders permeable to both conflict and cooperation. Unproductive conflict has been, by default, destructive, while the fruitful in- tersection and intertwining of cultures has strengthened their capacities for creative self elevation.

During all times, especially desperate and dehuma- nizing ones, cultural mutuality has opened the doors of ennoblement, i. Synaxa is a scientific journal, whose authors try to contribute to an explana- tion and understanding of long-term phenomena and processes of a structural character and strategic specific weight. Nowadays, tendencies towards knowledge integration prevail globally: Comparative perspective is welcome, while multiperspec- tivity is, more or less, expected.

enciklopedija britanika na srpskom pdf

This Journal gathers, collects… people and ideas; it is a place of dialogue. Documents and Memories, Novi Sad: In the context of mass production of media images, the early appearance of illustrations in the popular structure of advertisements is an ex- tremely valuable indicator of a revolutionary shift of attention — from words to image — which occurred in Serbian print media at the end of the 19th century.

The crucial role in the shaping of both the visual and the textual aspect in mass printed media was played by the appearance of finished clothing products aroundthe majority of which were made for women, both in European countries and in Serbia. The industrial production of ready-made clothing was accompanied by new shops and department stores as well as illustrated printed advertisements.

It can be said that the industrial production of products was closely followed by the mass production of images. In the 19th century, advertising pages contained information about fairs, bazaars, dinner dances at civil clubs, educational books, and even cigarettes for teeth, against toothache [Janc ]. Rarely, decorative frames and symbolic graphic signs appeared, among which the best known was the hand with the extended index finger.

Entire phrases in advertisements were so monotonously repeated on pages of various newspapers, as is the case today, that even a quick glance was sufficient to find the needed information. The key innovation occurred when the informative text was moved to one side, precisely to the margin, to show the image of the advertised product in the central position of the advertisement.

Other items would soon gain this privileged status as well, adding a visual presentation to the textual one. By aboutschematic drawings had already taken over the newspaper advertising pages.

In essence, the predictably patterned forms of textual narration in advertisements were complementary with the extremely stylized graphic illustrations of the advertised objects. However, in the context of the mass production of media images, the early appearance of illustrations in the popular structure of advertisements was quite a valuable indicator of the revolutionary change in the focus of attention — from words to image — which occurred in Serbian print media at the end of the 19th century.

The appearance of ready-made garments aroundthe majority of which were intended for women — both in Europe and in Serbia — was of cru- cial importance for the shaping of the visual, rather than just the textual, aspect of communication in the mass print media.

Industrial garment production was accompanied wrpskom the appearance of new department stores, as well as illustrated printed advertisements. This turn towards entertaining and interesting content with plenty of illustrations was visible in print media throughout Europe [Roebuck ]. The model for new gallery spaces, intended for the display of various types of goods was provided by the famous Parisian ten-storey department store Gallery Lafayette.

From its opening init set an example for all subsequent commercial and representative spaces intended for exhibiting and selling goods3. Large quantities of manufactured and exhibited industrial goods occupied the bitanika and shelves of newly-built department stores, and all of that, inevitably, had to srpskkm represented in the form of graphic illustration, for that was the only way that all those goods could continuously be nq to the view of large numbers of users or customers.

The garment industry and new stores also changed the appearance of other European capitals [Guenther ]. Thanks to newspaper illustrations, i. It can be said that the industrial production of goods was accompanied by a mass production of images.

Rusko-turski rat (1877–1878)

In addition, according to research of consumer culture, the number of people for whom these industrial and not hand-made objects were intended, was never greater in the history of humanity than in [Leonard Cheap and mass printing also counted on the increasing numbers of the city population, and thanks to technical improvements, there were unprecedented capacities for the graphic design of both modern packaging and advertising.


In this brief review of the beginnings of printed advertisements, it should not be forgotten that industrial products have radically transformed the appear- ance of newspaper advertisements.

Bicycles, French kitchen ranges, metal cash registers, porcelain stoves, mignon pianos, pate phones and record player phono- graphsas well as typewriters emerged on newspaper advertising pages and in the urbanized centers of Serbian cities where shining new large shops and department stores appeared5. They were all part of the building of a unified system of capitalist markets, regardless of whether they came from domestic or foreign garment industries, primarily those of Berlin and Paris.

And all of them were inevitably represented by an image, a newspaper illustration, in order to participate equally in the construction of the fascinating spectacle of goods, as defined by Guy Debord [Debord ]. The large number of almost unknown industrial products could not be quickly and adequately described with words. The picture offered radically new aspects in the presentation of new goods.

Industrial goods demanded an industry of images, a mass visualization of goods, among other things because the rheto- ric of the image is not just more convincing but more seductive than text.

However, especially since the s, the visual field has been increasingly expanding at the expense of the textual.

While at the end of the 19th century the text was ubiquitous in advertisements, among other things because it was the bearer of factual information, from the beginning of the 20th century, it was the picture that opened the window into the associative and symbolic plane of the significance of the presented object in print advertising messages.

After all, the text and the image have functioned complementarily until the present, both in the print and electronic media of mass culture. Immediately at the beginning, an ambivalent attitude towards mass and media culture was formed, which at various levels preferred imitation over originality.

The degree to which the women, rather than the men, were inclined towards shopping was illustrated in an advertisement in the Politika newspaper inin which city and country women are shown, in an almost futuristic painting, running with their hands full of merchandise out the big store at Terazije in Belgrade [Politika ; Janc Since the beginning of modern age, the woman has been blamed for having an exaggerated interest in her own physical appearance and an aestheticized pub- lic presentation.

The woman loses perfect awareness of her duties. According to the advice of the print media, a modern woman should under no circumstances lose her slenderness and become overweight. The focused and fragmentary message conveyed by the Orao Image 3.

It took up the entire page of the calendar and thus occupied the full attention of the reader, who was usually presented with dozens of diverse advertising contents on a single page. Finally, in building a quasi-cinematographic narration in the form of a comic book, spread over the entire page of the great eponymous illustrated calendar for the yearthe advertising message of the Orao phar- macy effectively uses the ambiguous and heterogeneous structure of comics and posters.

All those couplings — of the names of the pharmacy and the calendar, of text and drawings, of comics and posters — are in the function of enhancing the media message. After the end of the First World War, the drawings of elegant and slim ladies disappeared from the advertising pages, and the smiling and young Radion Girl8 came on the scene.

Instead of the starched white apron of the former maid-servant, she tied an ordinary dark scarf around her waist. She was covering her hair again, but with a spotted scarf, and waving a big white sheet, like a flag, printed with the message: The Unilever Company tried unsuccessfully to restore this famous brand of the Weimar Republic, which was popular across Europe, in Radion appeared on the territory of Yugo- slavia inwhen the soap factory in Osijek founded in became affiliated with the German factory of detergents of Georg Schicht.

If the woman of Romanticism waved a tricolor flag and carried a gun in the fight for her rights, the woman of the modern era unfurled a white sheet and carried a detergent box to defeat not just dirt, but also the underestimation of her own work in the house, which ultimately led to the overcoming of disorder in social relations.

Kočija – Wikipedia

Namely, the first post-war decade brought many radical changes models of behavior, both in private and public life. One of them was promoted by the Radion Girl, with the help of her com- panions who represented Merima and Zlatorog Goldhorn soap or Labud Swan soap flakes. Radion, Merima, Elida, Nivea and all other merchandise encijlopedija which used girls in their advertising campaigns started to appear systematically in domestic printed advertisements during the s.

And all of them consistently supported the visual model of modern advertising, with the young girl in the lead role who has become a replacement for the modern middle-class heroine. The woman was carrying out a multitude of household chores by herself, since the help of maid-servants was significantly reduced in times of enciklopdija. According to the published censuses, in the period between the two wars in Serbia, the number of employed women rose to over twenty thousand Illustrations with Radion, Merima soap and Kalodont toothpaste girls could be immediately imitated according to the enciklopefija In Adoption of certain gender roles and stereotypes is well known in psychology and personality development, but this process is even more successful if it is repeated many times srpskkom the same pattern is varied through the media.


Advertisements for Radion, for example, applied this principle not only throughout former Yugoslavia, but on the territory of all of Europe. The same consumer goods, Radion detergent or Lux soap, the same films, the same hits that were broadcast on the radio, and encikloledija why not?

On a Polish advertising poster, for example, a black cat would pop out as white from a bucket with Radion, while a commercial jingle specially composed for Radion and broadcast from to in Warsaw, stressed that Radion washes without any help, just like in the advertising messages published in Serbia As lungs are to a human being, so is the advertisement for business And another early analyst of advertising, made a similar comparison: As wine is to the body, so is the adver- tisement for business The Radion Girl did not remain lonely in doing so many important and complicated advertising jobs in the press.

Help came in the form of the Merima Girl, in Illustrated advertising messages were typical for maga- zines, while daily newspapers did not have such large advertising space.


Illus- trated advertisements were pushed to the margins of newspaper pages or published along with other heterogeneous advertising messages. The advertisement-friend works for a merchant both in his place of resi- dence and throughout the world.

When the merchant rests, the advertisement still works, when the merchant is in bed, the advertisement does not sleep; when the merchant travels, the advertisement is flying on wings. When the merchant leaves his business worries aside and goes to church to pray to God, or to a party for entertainment, his faithful friend the advertisement continues to work even then, so that it could be freely said: As lungs are to a human being, so is the advertisement for business.

Odis toothpaste, Merima soap flakes for silk, and the like. Fritz Henkel was the founder of an eponymous factory in Aachen inwhich already began to widely advertise itself in Today, Henkel is one of the leading hygiene product manufacturers. During the s, advertising campaign for Radion was intensified, so the Radion Girl regularly appeared on the pages of many illustrated magazines and daily news- papers, such as Nedelja SundayPolitika, Vreme Timeetc.

The young and joyful girl, no matter how familiar or well-known she appeared, was not really a local neighborhood girl, but a commercial fantasy.

As an illustration, but also as an illusion of social order, she represented a firm visual foundation of the mass media culture and consumer society between the two world wars. In order to successfully perform her role in the world of print media and to participate in the international spectacle of pictures, she first had to remove all traces of her historical, cultural and geographical origin and present herself as a transnational heroine of the pure kingdom of srpsko.

How- ever, the Radion Girl also had to upgrade her role of object, viewed by millions of people, by taking on the role of mother.

Isaac Bashevis Singer – Wikipedia

If she was lonely middle-class young heroine during the s, then, in the s, the Radion Girl quite naturally, had to become a responsible young mother. Her media image of the mother was successfully modulated in advertising messages.

In one instance, she is the mother of the cute girl Radojka, while, in another, she is the mother of an even younger child which, as it hugs its mother, addresses the audience with the follow- ing words: I do not want a tired and angry mom, I want a mom who smiles while she is doing the washing! However, both soap and its techno- logically advanced relative — detergent, such as Radion, continued to jointly build the position of merchandise as a fetish in the advertising messages of the 20th century [McClintock An organized system of pictures, in which the lead role belongs to a young and smiling girl, contributes, on the one hand, to the fetishism of banal objects such as soap and detergent, and, on the other, to the international marketing which will decreasingly recognize the barriers between languages, alphabets, cultures, as the end of the modern age approaches.

However, what man could resist a smiling mouth with beautiful white teeth? Your teeth can be attractive as well, Chlorodont will help you with that. Bad soap can ruin everything. In it, a quasi-antique, i.

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